My entry “Ink” for the SAS Encyclopedia of Archaeological Sciences (2019) has been published. To learn more about this groundbreaking publication, please visit the publisher’s website (John Wiley & Sons). To read my entry, click HERE!

Here is the Abstract:

Inks of various colors have been used for at least 5,000 years to communicate historical, philosophical, economic, and religious information on paper, ostraca, the human body, and other media. The portability, utility, and lasting permanence of this liquid substance has had a powerful and enduring impact on human civilization and local, regional, and global interconnectivity. Contemporary scientific studies of ancient ink are revealing profound insights into the technological and socio-historical contexts concerning its production and usage. New research also demonstrates how ancient ink and pigment can be used in modern telecommunications,biomedical applications, and manuscript conservation best practices.